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HOTEL-DIEU Hospital, Quebec City, QC 

HOTEL-DIEU Hospital, Quebec City, QC 






Sos del Rey Católico is a historic town and municipality located in the comarca of Cinco Villas, province of Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain. According to the 2004 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 740 inhabitants.

Sos del Rey Catolico was founded in 938 as a border town during the Reconquista.

It was the birthplace of King Ferdinand II (1452), in whose honor the town, formerly known simply as Sos, took the name del Rey Católico (of the Catholic King). It is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Aragon; large parts of the old town are said to look much like they did at the time of Ferdinand's birth. The many monuments in the town include: the Palacio de los Sada, birthplace of the Catholic Monarch; several churches, including the gothic church of Saint Stephen; the old medieval wall; and the medieval stock exchange (Lonja).


The Château de Foix where Jeanne of Artois was imprisoned in 1331 

Kahnawake ca 1860 

Wigmore Castle was founded after the Norman Conquest, probably c.1070, by William fitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford and a close associate of William the Conqueror. It was built on waste ground at a place called Merestun, the settlement by the mere or lake. The land was held at the time of the Conquest by Gunnfrothr or Gunnvarthr, who also held land at Lingen and Brampton Bryan. The associated town of Wigmore below the castle was probably also founded by fitzOsbern, perhaps around the earlier settlement.

There is no evidence for any earlier fortification on the site of the castle, but despite this, Wigmore in Herefordshire has sometimes been mistaken for Winingamere, a place in East Anglia where Edward the Elder built a fortification against the Danes in 971. Recent research has suggested that Winingamere was near Newport, Essex.[1]

The form of fitzOsbern's early castle at Wigmore is unknown, but given the scale of his fortifications at Chepstow, Monmouth and elsewhere, it is likely to have been substantial and probably covered much the same area as the present castle. In particular, he probably had a natural ravine reshaped to create a deep ditch behind the motte. No evidence of early stone defences has yet been discovered, leading to the conclusion that fitzOsbern's castle was built of timber, but it is just possible that the dense vegetation and thick deposits of debris conceal the foundations of an early stone keep.

FitzOsbern was killed in Flanders in 1071, and his son Roger de Breteuil took part in the Revolt of the Earls in 1075; after the Earl's subsequent defeat, William I seized the castle and gave it to another of his supporters, Ranulph de Mortimer (or Ralph de Mortimer). From this time on Wigmore became the head of the barony of the Mortimers, later from 1328 Earls of March.

In 1155 the castle was besieged by Henry II because Hugh de Mortimer refused to return the Bridgnorth Castle to the crown. Two small earthworks to the east and west of the castle have survived to the present day, and may represent siege-works built for the campaign.

Parts of the walls were built or rebuilt in stone in the late 12th century or early 13th century, and further work was carried out in the 13th century, perhaps when Hugh de Mortimer (1197-1227) was given Royal money for the castle's garrisoning. The works included the curtain wall that surrounds the bailey, which still stands to this day at its full height on the east side and the south side between the south tower and the gatehouse.

The castle was the subject of extensive works in the late 13th or early 14th century, when it was held by Roger Mortimer (1231-1282), Edmund Mortimer (1282-1304) and Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (lived 1287-1330). The walls were raised, the gatehouse remodelled and other buildings, including a substantial block, possibly a lodgings range, were constructed on the motte and elsewhere within the site.

Roger had succeeded his father Edmund in 1304, and strengthened the position of the Mortimer family considerably, acquiring Ludlow Castle and many lands in Ireland through marriage to the heiress Joan de Geneville. Roger was a leader of the party opposed to Edward II in the 1320s, and c.1325 became the lover of Edward's queen, Isabella of France. Following Edward's deposition and death in 1327, Mortimer, as the queen's lover and the effective stepfather of the young King Edward III, became the most important man in the kingdom. In 1328 Mortimer held a tournament near Wigmore, attended by the young king and almost all the magnates of England.[2]

Roger de Mortimer was executed in 1330 by King Edward III, and his lands seized by the crown. Edward III spent several weeks at Wigmore in the summer of 1332.[3] Mortimer's grandson (also named Roger) regained Wigmore and the rest of his lands in 1342. His own son Edmund married Edward III's granddaughter Phillipa. In 1381 their son, Roger, inherited at the age of six and was declared the heir presumptive should Richard II (Phillipa's cousin) die childless.

Roger de Mortimer was killed in battle in Ireland in 1398 and when the male line of the Mortimers died out in 1424, the castle passed to Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York through his mother Anne Mortimer, sister of the last Roger Mortimer.

Wigmore castle is said to have been derelict in 1425,[4] but archaeological excavations suggest that building work was carried out there in the mid 15th century. Richard's son Edward, Duke of York was almost certainly based at Wigmore Castle before his victory at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461. He deposed Henry VI and was crowned as Edward IV the following year.

Throughout the 16th century the castle was managed by the Council of the Marches, partly as a prison, although the castle was already beginning to decay again. In 1595 it was given to Sir Gelly Meyrick.[5] In 1601, after Meyrick was executed as a traitor, Elizabeth I sold Wigmore Castle to Thomas Harley of Brampton Bryan. His son, Sir Robert Harley, a Puritan and Parliamentarian, later inherited the castle. During the English Civil War Harley left the castle in charge of his wife, Lady Brilliana Harley, who had the castle's defences dismantled in order to prevent the Royalists using it against her.

After the Civil War, the castle was left in a state of ruin, and was gradually covered in trees and other vegetation. By the 20th century neglect and the growth of vegetation had left the remains of the castle as a scattering of ruins with features such as towers, curtain walls and the gatehouse almost indiscernible.

Unusually, because it remained in private hands, Wigmore was not subject to the large scale clearances carried out at most other major historic sites in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In 1995 Wigmore Castle came into the guardianship of English Heritage, which carried out some conservation work and small-scale excavation, which has made the site a little more accessible to visitors.

[edit] Structure and topography
The castle is of great strategic importance as it lies almost halfway between the rivers Teme and Lugg (about 4 km from each) and commands the wide area between them.

Wigmore Castle itself straddles the south-eastern edge of a spur, with marshland (since drained) to its north. The defences of the castle were further strengthened by the construction of ditches across the spur, between which the castle was built. These ditches acted as moats with the north-western one running past a mound, which was also fortified. This fortification was originally probably a wooden palisade, but later a stone keep was constructed in its place.

Fort Lachine in 1689 




Royal Victoria Hospital in 1893 

Montreal from Mount Royal, 1902 

Chateau Roquebrune 

The Abbaye aux Hommes ("Men's Abbey") is a former abbey church in the French city of Caen, Normandy. Dedicated to Saint Stephen ("Saint Étienne"), it is considered, along with the neighbouring Abbaye aux Dames ("Lady's Abbey"), to be one of the most notable Romanesque buildings in Normandy. Like all the major abbeys in Normandy, it was Benedictine. Lanfranc, before being archbishop of Canterbury, was the abbot of Saint-Etienne.

Built in Caen stone during the 11th century, the two semi-completed churches stood for many decades in competition. An important feature added to both churches in about 1120 was the ribbed vault, used for the first time in France. The two abbey churches are considered forerunners of the Gothic. The original Romanesque apse was replaced in 1166 by an early Gothic chevet, complete with rosette windows and flying buttresses. Nine towers and spires were added in the 13th century. The interior vaulting shows a similar progression, beginning with early sexpartite vaulting (using circular ribs) in the nave and progressing to quadipartite vaults (using pointed ribs) in the sanctuary.

The two monasteries were finally donated by William the Conqueror and his wife, Matilda of Flanders, as penalty for their marriage against the Pope's ruling. William was buried here; Matilda was buried in the Abbaye aux Dames. Unfortunately William's original tombstone of black marble, the same kind as Matilda's in the Abbaye aux Dames, was destroyed by the Calvinist iconoclasts in the 16th century and his bones scattered.

As a consequence of the Wars of Religion, the high lantern tower in the middle of the church collapsed and was never rebuilt.

The Benedictine abbey was suppressed during the French Revolution and the abbey church became a parish church.

From 1804 to 1961, the abbey buildings accommodated a prestigious high school, the Lycée Malherbe. During the Normandy Landings, inhabitants of Caen found refuge in the church; on the rooftop there was a red cross, made with blood on a sheet, to show that it was a hospital (to avoid bombings).

from Wikipedia 


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coverham Abbey.
Coverham Abbey, North Yorkshire, England was a Premonstratensian monastery originally founded at Swainby in 1190 by Helewisia, daughter of the Lord Chief Justice Ranulf de Glanville. It was refounded at Coverham in about 1212 by her son Ranulf fitzRalph, who had the body of his late mother reinterred in the chapter house at Coverham.

There is some evidence that the during the first half of the 14th century the abbey and its holdings were attacked by the Scots, with the abbey itself being virtually destroyed. Later in the that century there is a record of there being fifteen canons plus the abbot in residence.

Storkyrkan was first mentioned in a written source dated 1279 and according to tradition was originally built by Birger Jarl, the founder of the city itself. For nearly four hundred years it was the only parish church in the city, the other churches of comparible antiquity originally built to serve the spiritual needs religious communities (e. g., Riddarholm Church). It became a Lutheran Protestant church in 1527. The parish church since the Middle Ages of the Nikolai parish, covering the whole island on which the Old Town stands, it has also been the cathedral of Stockholm since the Diocese of Stockholm was created out of the Archdiocese of Uppsala and the Diocese of Strängnäs in 1942. Because of its convenient size and its proximity to the earlier royal castle and the present royal palace it has frequently been the site of major events in Swedish history, such as coronations, royal wedding and royal funerals. The last Swedish king to be crowned here was Oscar II in 1873. Crown Princess Victoria, oldest daughter of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, was married to Daniel Westling on 19 June, 2010 at the Storkyrkan, the same date on which her parents were also married in Storkyrkan in 1976.

from Wikipedia 

Fearn Abbey - known as "The Lamp of the North" - has its origins in one of Scotland's oldest pre-Reformation church buildings. Part of the Church of Scotland and located to the southeast of Tain, Ross-shire, it continues as an active parish church (united with Nigg and linked with Tarbat).

The original Fearn Abbey was established in either 1221 or 1227 by Premonstratensian canons from Whithorn Priory. Originally founded at "Old Fearn" near Edderton, it was moved by 1238 to "New Fearn" further east, perhaps to take advantage of better agricultural lands. The Abbey was rebuilt between 1338 and 1372 on the orders of William III, Earl of Ross. Following the Reformation the Abbey remained in use as a parish church, but disaster struck in 1742 when the flagstone roof collapsed during a service killing many members of the congregation. A new church was then built adjacent to the old ruined church, but it itself had fallen into a ruinous state by the early 1770s. Accordingly, part of the original ruined Abbey was rebuilt in 1772 and again became the parish church as part of the Established Church of Scotland.

The current building thus substantially dates from 1772, but incorporating parts of the medieval structure. It was restored by Ian G. Lindsay & Partners in 1971. Further restoration was carried out in 2002-3 under the auspices of Historic Scotland.

from Wikipedia 

Barnard Castle is an historical town in Teesdale, County Durham, England. It is named after the castle around which it grew up. It sits on the north side of the River Tees, opposite Startforth, 42 miles (68 km) south southwest of Newcastle upon Tyne, 38 miles (61 km) south southwest of Sunderland, 30 miles (48 km) west of Middlesbrough and 21 miles (34 km) southwest of the county town of Durham. Other than the castle, the Bowes Museum is also located in the town. Nearby towns include Bishop Auckland north-east, Darlington to the east and Richmond to the south-east 

Dunfermline Abbey is as a Church of Scotland Parish Church located in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. In 2002 the congregation had 806 members. The minister (since 1991) is the Reverend Alastair Jessamine. The church occupies the site of the ancient chancel and transepts of a large medieval Benedictine abbey, which was sacked in 1560 during the Scottish Reformation and permitted to fall into disrepair. Part of the old abbey church continued in use at that time and some parts of the abbey infrastructure still remain to this day. Dunfermline Abbey is one of Scotland's most important cultural sites. 

Whitby Abbey is a ruined Benedictine abbey overlooking the North Sea on the East Cliff above Whitby in North Yorkshire, England. It was disestablished during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under the auspices of Henry VIII. It is a Grade I Listed building in the care of English Heritage and its site museum is housed in Cholmley House. 

Ruins of Helmsley Castle which comprise a formidable double ditch, hewn from solid rock on the west side, surrounding an oblong inner bailey. The concentric rectangular ringwork is generally attributed to Walter l'Espec, founder of the nearby Rievaulx Abbey, who held the site from 1120 to 1153. The massive Earthen rampart between the deep ditches was probably originally surmounted by a timber stockade. A stone castle was raised by Robert de Roos some time between 1186 and 1227. The curtain wall enclosing the inner bailey featured circular towers protecting 3 of the 4 corners, 2 semi-circular towers flanking the northern gatehouse plus a larger projecting D-shaped tower keep located on the eastern curtain. On the western side the curtain wall is sharply set back roughly half-way along its length and a square tower situated in the angle. A simple gate tower provided access on the southern side. A range of domestic buildings including a great hall were situated on the west side of the inner bailey. The entrances were strengthened in the mid C13 with the addition of an outer gatehouse in front of the north gate and a large barbican beyond the south gate. During C14 the south barbican was strengthened, 2 upper floors were added to the keep and a new hall built in the south west corner. In the 1560s Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland, built a house in the shell of the west tower which survives largely unaltered. In November 1644 following a 3 month siege the castle surrended to the Parliamentary commander Sir Thomas Fairfax and its subsequent slighting was severe. Most of the curtain wall and towers survive only as footings although the courtyard front of the keep stands almost extant. (PastScape)  

The castle was first built by a Norman baron in c.1100 on a cliff above the River Nidd. There is documentary evidence dating from 1130 referring to works carried out at the castle by Henry I.[1] In the 1170s Hugh de Moreville and his followers took refuge there after assassinating Thomas Becket.

In 1205 King John took control of Knareborough Castle.[2] He regarded Knaresborough as an important northern fortress and spent £1,290 on improvements to the castle.[citation needed] The castle was later rebuilt at a cost of £2,174 between 1307 and 1312 by Edward I and later completed by Edward II, including the great keep.[3] John of Gaunt acquired the castle in 1372, adding it to the vast holdings of the Duchy of Lancaster.

The castle was taken by Parliamentarian troops in 1644 during the Civil War, and largely destroyed in 1648 not as the result of warfare, but because of an order from Parliament to dismantle all Royalist castles. Indeed, many town centre buildings are built of 'castle stone'.

The castle has stood in Skipton for over 900 years. It was first built as a motte and bailey castle in 1090 by Robert de Romille, a Norman baron. The wooden castle was replaced with a stone keep as it was not strong enough to withstand attacks from the Scots to the north.

In 1310, Edward II granted the castle to Robert Clifford who was appointed Lord Clifford of Skipton and Guardian of Craven.[1] Robert Clifford ordered many improvements to the fortifications but died in the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 when the improvements were barely complete.

During the English Civil War it was the only Royalist stronghold in the north of England until December 1645. After a three year siege, a surrender was negotiated in 1645 between Oliver Cromwell and the Royalists. Oliver Cromwell ordered the removal of the castle roofs. During the siege local legend has it that the walls were reinforced against cannon fire by hanging sheep fleeces over the sides to deaden the impact from the rounds and that sheep fleeces feature on the towns coat of arms as a result. Skipton remained the Cliffords' principal seat until 1676. Lady Anne Clifford (1590-1676) was the last Clifford to own it. After the three year siege, she ordered repairs and as a commemoration she planted a yew tree in the central courtyard to mark its repair after the English Civil War.

Today it stands as a well preserved medieval castle and is a tourist attraction and private residence.
from Wikipedia 

Rhuddlan Castle is a late 13th century stone concentric fortress, founded by King Edward I. Built in impressive symmetry, the dominating quadrilateral inner curtain walls are flanked on the angles, by massive opposing four storey twin towered gatehouses and round towers. A broad stone revetted moat, flanked by small buttresses and turrets, protects the narrow roughly concentric outer ward. The River Clwyd was canalized to give access from the sea and the defended water-gate and dock are still overlooked by the four storey Gillot's Tower. Successor to Twt Hill, the castle was in Royalist hands during the Civil War but was forced to capitulate in 1646, only to be slighted in 1648. 5 miles north-east is Prestatyn Castle. 

Audley's Castle, is a 15th century castle located 1 mile (1.6km) north-east of Strangford, County Down, Northern Ireland, on a rocky height overlooking Strangford Lough.[1] It is a three-storey Tower house named after its 16th century owner, John Audley.[2] Audley's Castle tower house and bawn is a State Care Historic Monument in the townland of Castleward, in Down District Council area, at grid ref: J5781 5058.[3]

There are thousands of small stone towers similar to Audley's Castle in the Irish countryside. They are one of the commonest of archaeological sites, which indicates these were not buildings put up for the higher aristocracy, but for lesser lords and gentry. Most were built in the late Middle Ages (roughly 1350-1550). Audley's was built towards the end of this period

from Wikipedia 





Appleby Castle, overlooking the town of Appleby-in-Westmorland and the River Eden, was founded by Ranulf le Meschin at the beginning of the 12th century. In about 1170 a square stone keep was added, known as Caesars Tower, which is now one of the best preserved examples of its type, having been little altered in 800 years. The castle was in Royal hands when the Scottish King, William the Lion, invaded the Eden Valley in 1174. The constable of the castle surrendered without a fight, for which he was heavily fined by King Henry II.

In 1269 the castle was inherited by Roger de Clifford, and it would remain in the ownership of the Clifford family for nearly 400 years. In the mid 17th century, Lady Anne Clifford made the castle her home and she was responsible for the restoration of the castle and for the construction of the stables, the building known as 'Lady Anne's Bee House', and the alms houses both in the town and in the castle grounds. On her death the castle passed to the Earls of Thanet who were responsible for converting the hall block into the classical mansion house that stands at the opposite end of the bailey from the Norman keep. Much of the stone for this building came by demolishing the nearby castles of Brougham and Brough.

Built for surveillance and domination of the Loire valley, the castle provides an interesting example of how a 13th century feudal castle could be adapted to the evolution of military construction, notable with the development of artillery. During the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of Religion it was of historical importance but after the French Revolution it fell victim to a gradual abandonment which reduced it to the state of ruin. The site includes an enceinte, partly rebuilt in the 15th century, which surrounded the fortress half way up the hill.

The castle itself was, right from the start, of square plan with a courtyard occupied on the south by a residence. In the 16th century, Antoine de la Tour added a tower in the north-western corner, a large horseshoe-shaped tower in the south-western corner, and other walls, parts of which remain on the north and south sides, the latter with a corner tower. with turn of angle.

Inside the enceinte, the vestiges on the ground or hidden provide little help to suggest how the inhabited parts were divided. In the north-east, are remnants of an arched room and a chimney. The 15th century tower was reinforced internally by a second wall and was pierced with holes for archers and cannons.

from Wikipedia 

Beeston was built by Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, as an impregnable stronghold and a symbol of power. In medieval documents the castle is described as Castellum de Rupe, the Castle on the Rock. It is one of three major castles built by Ranulph in the 1220s, shortly after his return from the Fifth Crusade. The others are Bolingbroke in Lincolnshire, and Chartley, Staffordshire, both of which share similar architectural features with Beeston; in particular the design of the towers.[9][10][11] Unlike many other castles of the period, Beeston does not have a keep as its last line of defence. Instead the natural features of the land together with massive walls, strong gate houses, and carefully positioned towers made the baileys themselves the stronghold. The defences consisted of two parts. Firstly, a rectangular castle on the summit of the hill, with a sheer drop on three sides and a defensive ditch up to 30 feet (9 m) deep in places cut into the rock on the fourth side. Secondly, an outer bailey was built on the lower slopes, with a massive gatehouse protected by a 16 feet (5 m) wide and 10 feet (3 m) deep ditch.[12]

Engraving of 1727 by the Buck Brothers, showing Beeston Castle from the south[13]
The outer bailey was roughly rectangular, with 6 feet (2 m) thick walls faced in sandstone and infilled with rubble. The walls, parts of which still remain, contain a number of D-shaped towers, an innovation in English castles at that time. The towers allowed defenders to fire across the walls as well as forwards, and their open-backed design meant that they would not offer cover to any attackers who gained access to the outer bailey. The inner bailey was situated on the rocky summit at the western end of the crag.[12]

To provide the castle's inhabitants with a supply of fresh water two wells were dug into the rock, one of them, at 370 feet (113 m) deep,[1] one of the deepest castle wells in England

from Wikipedia 

A Norman castle originally stood on the high ground in this spot. During the English Civil War, it was one of the more notable strongholds of the king's supporters. It eventually passed into the hands of the Dukes of Rutland and following a fire, was rebuilt by the wife of the 5th Duke, and gained its present Gothic castle look. The architect James Wyatt was chiefly responsible for this restructuring, and the result is a building which bears a superficial resemblance to a medieval castle, its central tower reminiscent of Windsor Castle. The present Castle is the fourth building to have stood on the site since Norman times.

Belvoir was a royal manor until it was granted to Robert, 1st baron de Ros in 1257. When that family died out in 1508 the manor and castle passed to George Manners, who inherited the castle and barony through his mother. His son was created Earl of Rutland in 1525, and John Manners, 9th Earl of Rutland was created Duke of Rutland in 1703. So Belvoir castle has been the home of the Manners family for five hundred years, and seat of the dukes of Rutland for over three centuries.

from Wikipedia 

The first castle at Berkeley was a motte-and-bailey, built around 1067 by William FitzOsbern shortly after the Conquest.[4] This was subsequently held by three generations of the first Berkeley family, all called Roger de Berkeley, and rebuilt by them in the first half of the 12th century.[5] The last Roger de Berkeley was dispossessed in 1152 for withholding his allegiance from the House of Plantagenet during the conflict of The Anarchy, and the Lordship of Berkeley was then granted to Robert Fitzharding, a wealthy burgess of Bristol and supporter of the Plantagenets. He was the founder of the Berkeley family which still holds the castle.[4][6][7][8]

In 1153–54 Fitzharding received a royal charter from King Henry II giving him permission to rebuild the castle,[8] with the aim of defending the Bristol - Gloucester Road, the Severn estuary and the Welsh border.[citation needed] Fitzharding built the circular shell keep during 1153–56, probably on the site of the former motte. The building of the curtain wall followed, probably during 1160–90 by Robert and then by his son Maurice.[4][8]

Much of the rest of the castle is 14th century and was built for Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley: Thorpe's Tower, to the north of the keep, the inner gatehouse to its southwest, and other buildings of the inner bailey.[4]

from Wikipedia 

the Battle of Hastings in 1066, King William granted the Manor and Honour of Berkhamsted to his half-brother, Robert of Mortain, and started work on the castle, at that time a timber structure. Berkhamsted was of some strategic importance, and there was already a Saxon fort guarding the main route through the valley.

Henry I held court at the castle in 1123. During his reign and that of his successor, Henry II, the castle was in the hands of the Chancellors, including Thomas Becket. Extensive building works were undertaken during this period. The earliest stone buildings date from Thomas's time (1155–1164). The castle was taken back by Henry II in 1163, from Thomas Becket, then Archbishop of Canterbury, whom Henry had accused of misappropriating cash.

Richard I gave the castle to his queen, Berengaria of Navarre, in 1191. She lived there until Richard’s death in 1199, when the castle came into the possession of Richard's brother, John. In 1204, John granted the castle to his queen, Isabella of Angoulême, who lived there until 1216, when Prince Louis of France (later Louis VIII) laid siege to the castle. The defenders held out for only two weeks.

1227: Richard, Earl of Cornwall, younger brother of Henry III, was granted the castle. He used it as one of his main residences and the administrative centre of the Earldom of Cornwall. His wife Isabel later died here, following childbirth, in 1240.

1291: Edward granted Berkhamsted to his second queen, Margaret of France. On her death, Isabella of France, queen of Edward II, succeeded.

Edward III gave the castle to his son Edward, the Black Prince in 1337, as part of the newly-created Duchy of Cornwall. After his capture by the Black Prince at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, John II of France was imprisoned in the castle.

1361: The Black Prince spent his honeymoon at the castle, and hunted in its extensive deer park.

1389: Geoffrey Chaucer was appointed Clerk to the Works. It is not known how much time he actually spent at the castle, however.

1399: On his accession, Henry IV granted the castle to his son, later Henry V. It then passed to Margaret of Anjou, Henry VI's queen.

Edward IV granted the castle to his mother Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, in 1469. She lived here for the remainder of her life, but after her death, the castle gradually fell into decay. In 1580, Elizabeth I leased the Manor of Berkhamsted, including the ruined castle and the deer park, for the nominal rent of one red rose to Sir Edward Carey, Keeper of the Queen’s Jewels. He built Berkhamsted Place on the hill above the castle, using stone from the ruins.

During the first half of the 19th century, concern began to grow about the impact of the Industrial Revolution on Britain's archaeological and historical heritage, and as a result, many antiquarian societies were founded during that period. The development of the railways was considered to be a particular threat. Northampton Castle was demolished, and the city walls of York, Chester, and Newcastle were breached, to make way for the railways. In 1833, Berkhamsted Castle became the first historic structure to be afforded statutory protection against railway development

from Wikipedia 

The area was first fortified by the Saxons in the 6th or 7th century. In the 12th century the Normans built a Motte-and-bailey on a nearby hill above the settlement of Bolingbroke.[1] The present structure was founded by Ranulf, Earl of Chester, in 1220 shortly after he returned from the Fifth Crusade.

Ranulf died in 1232 without a male heir, and his titles, lands and castles passed to his sisters. By 1311 Bolingbroke had passed through marriage into the ownership of John of Gaunt and the House of Lancaster.

In 1366, Henry IV, John's son, was born at Bolingbroke. Two years later Henry's mother, Blanche of Lancaster, died from plague at the castle.

By the 15th and 16th century, the castle had fallen into disrepair although repairs were carried out during the Tudor period. In 1636 a survey found that all of the towers were effectively beyond repair.[1]

At the start of the First English Civil War, Bolingbroke was again put to use as a military fortification garrisoned by Royalist forces. In 1643 it was badly damaged in a siege during the Battle of Winceby. The following year, the castle was recaptured from the Parliamentarians but due to defeats elsewhere was relinquished again. In 1652 the castle was "slighted" to prevent any further use. The towers and walls were torn down and dumped into the moat.[1]

The last major structure collapsed in 1815.

Bramber Castle is a Norman motte-and-bailey castle in the village of Bramber, West Sussex overlooking the River Adur (grid reference TQ185107).

William De Braose constructed the castle c1070,[1] along with the Norman church, on a natural mound and most of the surviving masonry dates from this time. Except for a period of confiscation during the reign of King John, Bramber Castle remained in the ownership of the De Braose family until the line died out in 1324.

Despite very little surviving, the basic layout of some areas of Bramber Castle can still be identified. The most prominent feature is a large, rugged lump of stone, all that remains of the Gatehouse tower. Still standing to almost its full height, a single window, and some floor joist holes, are clearly visible within the structure. Beyond the Gatehouse are the existing foundations of what is believed to have been living quarters and a guardhouse. The dressed pillars of an entrance can be made out, but the bulk of the remaining walls now consist of only lumps of basic rough stone infill, the better quality dressing stone having long since been quarried away for use elsewhere. Lying to the north of the gatehouse is the original castle motte, its earthen mound rising to a height of some 30 ft (10 m). A short distance away is a section of the curtain wall and, again, this survives to a reasonable height, up to 10 ft (3 m) in places.[2]

Little is known of Bramber Castle's history and even records kept during the Civil War only mention a 'skirmish' in the village c1642. The church suffered quite badly as a result of the Parliamentarian guns being set up in the transepts, where they afforded a better vantage point to fire on Bramber Castle.

Although there is not much to see among the fragmentary ruins, the lawned areas in the bailey are well maintained, mature trees have transformed the motte into a shady glade, and the moat now provides a path around the castle perimeter from which to view the site.

There is also a small church (still in use today ) located directly next to the castle's entrance, which used to be a chapel for the castle's inhabitants.

In the Domesday Book survey of the country in William I of England's reign, it was ascertained that Bramber belonged to William de Braose, who possessed also forty other manors.

The family were left in possession of their estates by the service of ten knights' fees to the Crown, but in John I's tyrannical reign the troubles of the owners of Bramber Castle began. In the year 1203 the anger of the barons began to find voice, and John I, alarmed at the symptoms of disaffection, required hostages of them.

Bailey with tree overgrown motte (left) and fragments of curtain wall (right)
William de Braose was one of the suspected nobles, and John demanded his children as hostages for his fidelity. The lady of Bramber was more frank than prudent. When her husband sternly refused to send his children to the king, she added that "she would not trust her children with the king who had so basely murdered Prince Arthur, his kinsman." The imprudent words were made known to John I, who never forgave them. He ordered the family to be seized; but his men arrived too late to execute his orders - the De Braoses had fled to Ireland.

They had, however, only escaped for a time. The king caused them to be followed, and at length succeeded in having them seized, and sent to him. They were taken to Windsor Castle, where the family were shut up together in a room - the whole family (save one)-and were there starved to death by John's order. One son, William de Breose, who was married and had a son, escaped and fled to France but died shortly afterwards.

John I had previously taken possession of his estates and given them to his son Richard; but he restored Bramber to William's son Reginald, the last of his family.

John, the heir apparent of Reginald, died by a fall from his horse in Henry III's reign, and that sovereign's brother took charge of the castle until the infant heir was of age.

Bramber devolved at length to the Mowbrays, but was forfeited to the Crown when John de Mowbray was executed for treason, having joined the nobles against the Spencers, the favourites of Edward II.

It was restored by Edward III to his son, who had followed his liege to the French wars

from Wikipedia 

The first castle was built by William Rufus in the 1090s, as a stone motte and bailey in the north part of the former fort. One of the first stone castles to be built in Britain, the walls show the herringbone pattern typical of Norman architecture. Brough Castle first came under serious attack in 1174, during a raid on England by the Scottish king William the Lion, in support of the Revolt of 1173–1174. The castle's defenders eventually surrendered when William burned it down, destroying all but the base of the keep.

The current keep dates from the 1180s, when Theobald de Valoignes rebuilt the remains of the castle. King John gave the castle to Robert de Vieuxpont in 1203, and he continued to refortify, constructing an upper hall over the courtyard.

Brough Castle from the south east. Clifford's Tower is in the foreground, with the keep behind on the left.
In 1268, the castle passed to the Clifford family, the barons de Clifford, who also owned Brougham Castle in the area. Robert Clifford began to enlarge and improve the castle, building the circular tower at the south east corner, known as Clifford's Tower, around 1300. A new upper hall, and associated chambers, was built by his grandson Roger around 1350. The Cliffords lived here until Christmas 1521, when fire again destroyed the castle.

After lying derelict for nearly 140 years, Lady Anne Clifford began a programme of repairs and rebuilding at Brough in 1659. A stone plaque commemorating her efforts was erected in 1663. She spent considerable periods of time here, but after her death in 1676 the castle ceased to be occupied.

Following the death of Anne Clifford, the castle passed to the earls of Thanet, who made their home at Appleby Castle in Appleby-in-Westmorland. Brough castle began to decline accordingly. A sale was held in 1715, raising £55 from the auctioning of the roof and fittings. Much of the stone was plundered, mostly in 1763 when Brough mill was built. Even the commemorative plaque was reused, under the water-wheel.

An engraving of 1739 by the Buck Brothers shows Brough Castle still standing, but by the time it came under the protection of the Ministry of Works in 1920, it was only just saved from total collapse. It is now cared for by English Heritage.

from Wikipedia 







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